Antique car The American George B. Selden filed for a patent on 8 May His application included not only the engine but its use in a 4-wheeled car. Selden filed a series of amendments to his application which stretched out the legal process, resulting in a delay of 16 years before the patent was granted on 5 November
Hybrid vehicles are electric cars that utilize small internal-combustion engines and an electric generator. The advantages of this concept are clear: This article provides some history on the hybrid concept as well as a survey of the innovative systems that have been developed in hybrid science.
Current releases by Honda and Toyota are briefly examined.
Introduction Recently there has been much excitement regarding the release of the first hybrid electric vehicles into the American consumer market. It may seem as though the hybrid concept is relatively new to the automobile industry, but this is untrue.
Almost a century ago, inthe concept was conceived by American engineer H. For many years, the concept was widely ignored, primarily because of the high development costs and the uncertainty regarding the widespread acceptance of electric automobiles.
A History of Technological Innovation The real surge in development occurred inwhen the Clinton administration announced the formation of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles PNGV consortium, consisting of the "Big Three" automobile manufacturers General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler and about smaller technical firms .
Such a vehicle would be about three times as fuel efficient as a current, comparable, gas-fueled automobile. Furthermore, the increase in efficiency is to be achieved without reduction in performance, safety, or comfort in a vehicle that does not cost more and emits one-eighth of the pollutants.
This leaves a substantial amount of work to be accomplished bywhen the first production-ready prototypes are to be released . Despite the hurdles that still must be overcome, all major automobile manufacturers are involved in hybrid research and development.
Marc Ross, a University of Michigan physicist who conducts research on energy efficiency in automobiles . Clearly, many involved in the industry see hybrid technology as an essential component of future vehicles. This is but one of the innovations that are leading the way toward the modern supercar.
Now, seven years after the conception of the PNGV, additional forces have aided in speeding the development of "supercar" technology. Tough federal environmental regulations are requiring motor vehicles to further reduce emissions and improve fuel efficiency.
Major improvements in a host of enabling technologies have also brought the goal of the PNGV closer to reality. These developments include lighter-weight body structures, more efficient engines, better batteries, and more efficient electric motors and generators.
A major catalyst in the development of the technology that is often underestimated is the declining availability and rising price of gasoline.
This factor mostly affects US demand and advancement, as drivers in Europe and Japan already pay about three times as much for gasoline as do motorists in America.
Cheaper, Faster, Longer The current push toward hybrid technology seems like a natural progression when one examines the numerous advantages that it exhibits over traditional automobiles.
When pollution from the generating source that charges its batteries is taken into account, an electric vehicle is about one-tenth as polluting as a conventional internal combustion vehicle that is well-tuned.
A hybrid can be about one-eighth as polluting.Updated world stock indexes. Get an overview of major world indexes, current values and stock market data. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: A History of Technological Innovation.
The US Department of Energy's Hybrid Propulsion Program began in to accelerate the technological development of hybrid vehicles.
The program has played a critical role in advancing the President's PNGV initiative. Although Honda was the first corporation to release a. After repeatedly exploring ways to achieve this goal, Toyota decided to adopt a combustion engine and electric motor hybrid system in June A mere two years later in October , Toyota launched the world's .
Toyota RAV4 Redesign, Hybrid. March 1, sremci. Thrown a handful of technological innovations. The most important are the Panoramic View Monitor, which is located on a central screen of 7 inches.
Directly projected an image around the car in degrees. If you opt for a hybrid, coming to the aid of two electric motors, each. Toyota has invented a car that parallel parks itself. This new version of the Prius, Toyota's hybrid gas-electric automobile, has an optional self-parking feature, which combines a rear-mounted camera, power steering and special software that automatically guides the car backward into its curbside destination.
This review of consumer EV adoption studies provides theoretical and empirical insights for research, policy and practice. • Drivers for EV adoption include pro-environmental attitudes, symbolic meanings, identity, innovativeness and emotions.