Buck Mulligana boisterous medical student, calls Stephen Dedalus a young writer encountered as the principal subject of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man up to the roof of the Sandycove Martello tower where they both live. There is tension between Stephen and Mulligan, stemming from a cruel remark Stephen has overheard Mulligan making about his recently deceased mother, May Dedalusand from the fact that Mulligan has invited an English student, Hainesto stay with them.
Table of Contents Context Nearly three thousand years after they were composed, the Iliad and the Odyssey remain two of the most celebrated and widely read stories ever told, yet next to nothing is known about their author.
He was certainly an accomplished Greek bard, and he probably lived in the late eighth and early seventh centuries b. Authorship is traditionally ascribed to a blind poet named Homer, and it is under this name that the works are still published. Greeks of the third and second centuries b.
Most modern scholars believe that even if a single person wrote the epics, his work owed a tremendous debt to a long tradition of unwritten, oral poetry. Casual storytellers and semiprofessional minstrels passed these stories down through generations, with each artist developing and polishing the story as he told it.
According to this theory, one poet, multiple poets working in collaboration, or perhaps even a series of poets handing down their work in succession finally turned these stories into written works, again with each adding his own touch and expanding or contracting certain episodes in the overall narrative to fit his taste.
Although historical, archaeological, and linguistic evidence suggests that the epics were composed between and b. This earlier period, the Greeks believed, was a more glorious and sublime age, when gods still frequented the earth and heroic, godlike mortals with superhuman attributes populated Greece.
Because the two epics strive to evoke this pristine age, they are written in a high style and generally depict life as it was believed to have been led in the great kingdoms of the Bronze Age.
Of the two epics, the Odyssey is the later both in setting and, probably, date of composition. The Iliad tells the story of the Greek struggle to rescue Helen, a Greek queen, from her Trojan captors.
The Odyssey takes the fall of the city of Troy as its starting point and crafts a new epic around the struggle of one of those Greek warriors, the hero Odysseus. It tells the story of his nostos, or journey home, to northwest Greece during the ten-year period after the Greek victory over the Trojans.
A tale of wandering, it takes place not on a field of battle but on fantastic islands and foreign lands. After the unrelenting tragedy and carnage of the Iliad, the Odyssey often strikes readers as comic or surreal at times.
This quality has led some scholars to conclude that Homer wrote the Odyssey at a later time of his life, when he showed less interest in struggles at arms and was more receptive to a storyline that focused on the fortunes and misadventures of a single man.
Like the Iliad, the Odyssey was composed primarily in the Ionic dialect of Ancient Greek, which was spoken on the Aegean islands and in the coastal settlements of Asia Minor, now modern Turkey. Some scholars thus conclude that the poet hailed from somewhere in the eastern Greek world.
More likely, however, the poet chose the Ionic dialect because he felt it to be more appropriate for the high style and grand scope of his work.In a world governed by the gods, is there any room for human will? Do human choices make a difference? What kind of religion do the characters in The Odyssey seem to .
CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. Author: Homer Date: 9th or 8th century B.C. The authorship of The Odyssey (and The Iliad) is not known for sure; the epic poems were passed down through an oral tradition and Homer, a figure whose existence cannot be proven, is only the name the ancient Greeks themselves attached to the poems.
In Homer’s epic, The Odyssey, various aspects of the ancient Greeks are revealed through the actions, characters, plot, and wording. Homer uses his skill as a playwright, poet, and philosopher to inform the audience of the history, prides, and achievements of the ancient Greeks, and, also, to tell of the many values and the multi-faceted culture of the ancient Greek caste.
Within the Odyssey, adherence to the code functions as a kind of imperfect currency. If one acts in accordance with the rules, one will generally, but not always, be rewarded. If one acts in accordance with the rules, one will generally, but not always, be rewarded.
The Odyssey contains certain literary devices common to primary epics.
List these devices and explain their purpose. List these devices and explain their purpose.
If you could change one of Homer's techniques in telling the story, what would it be?