Order Assignment This order has already been completed on Studybay On Studybay you can order your academic assignment from one of our professional writers. Hire your writer directly, without overpaying for agencies and affiliates! Check price for your assignment 15 total offers received. ProWriter Gene-Environment Interaction Paper In a reflective paper of words, describe how Sandra Scarr's three types of heredity-environment interactions apply to you.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Research clearly shows that both nature and nurture play important roles in the genesis of psychopathology. We begin with an examination of methodological issues involving gene-environment interactions, with examples concerning psychiatric and neurological conditions.
Then we review the interactions in psychiatric disorders using twin, adoption and association designs. Finally, we consider gene-environment interactions in selected neurodevelopmental disorders autism and schizophrenia.
Genetic factors, environment, interaction, neurodevelopmental disorders Family, twin, and adoption studies have firmly established the roles of both genes and environment in mental disorders.
It remains difficult, however, to find genes for these disorders, and to characterize the particular environmental circumstances under which psychopathology emerges.
The reason for this difficulty lies in the complex nature of mental disorders. Many disorders — like many normal physiological conditions e. In addition, genetic and environmental factors interact with each other in complex ways to influence phenotype 1.
In other words, individual genes and environmental factors exert their effects only via interaction with other genes and other environmental factors.
The issue is no longer one of nature versus nurture; rather, we must ask: Interaction phenomena are important. By ignoring interactions, true genetic and environmental effects can be obscured, which leads to false negative results and, more generally, to inconsistent findings in the literature.
The subsequent discussion begins with a consideration of methodological and measurement issues involving gene-environment interactions, with examples concerning psychiatric and neurological conditions. This will be followed by a representative review of interactions in psychiatric disorders using twin, adoption and association designs.
Finally, gene-environment interactions will be considered in selected neurodevelopmental disorders autism and schizophrenia to highlight their potential to shed light on underlying etiologic mechanisms in this class of psychiatric conditions.
Some of these problems are ones of definition and assessment, i. Environmental exposures are difficult to define and measure precisely, and are understudied in the context of genetic research designs 8.
Moreover, putative environmental risk factors may not be truly environmental. Gene-environment interaction is difficult to measure in the presence of gene-environment correlation 4. On the other hand, there are several different ways of measuring genotype 3.
Unfortunately, because of the lack of well-established candidate genes for mental disorders and relatively little knowledge of the biological processes that give rise to mental disordersresearchers have to rely on less direct ways of classifying a person according to genetic risk.
This point underscores the importance and potential impact of the developments in molecular genetics, which will make it easier to identify genes and genetic markers associated with mental disorders. These ongoing advances will eventually allow the assessment of specific genotypes in specific environments, which will facilitate direct and systematic investigations of gene-environment interactions.
The impact of advances in molecular genetics i. One of the earliest environmental risk factors associated with AD was a history of head injury 11 Because a positive family history was also a risk factor for the disease 13attempts were made to find evidence for gene-environment interaction, using family history as an indicator of genetic risk.
However, results of early studies failed to demonstrate convincing evidence of interaction 14 Malaspina et al 17 found similar evidence for gene-environment interaction in schizophrenia, another mental disorder that has been associated with head injury.
Using membership in multiplex schizophrenia and bipolar pedigrees as proxies for, respectively, greater and lesser genetic loading, they found that schizophrenic subjects from schizophrenic pedigrees were more likely to have experienced a traumatic brain injury While these results are provocative, their implications are limited by the lack of information about schizophrenia susceptibility genes.
As was the case with AD, once these have been identified with the aid of advances in molecular genetics, it will be relatively easy to incorporate this information into epidemiological studies, resulting in a rapid increase in knowledge about disease pathogenesis.
Currently, alcohol use provides a paradigm for studying gene-environment interaction similar to AD. While there are methodological limitations to these studies e.
For example, MZ discordant twins can provide evidence for the influence of non-inherited characteristics on a disorder. A greater incidence of obstetric complications OCs 21 and of dysmorphological handprint signs suggestive of abnormal fetal development 22 has been observed in MZ twins with schizophrenia than in their unaffected cotwins.
A different approach involves comparing heritabilities i. This is a form of gene-environment interaction: In other words, the amount of variability in a disorder that is due to genetic or environmental influences may differ at different levels of an environmental variable, distinct from any main effect of that variable i.This paper summarizes the contributions of group 8 to the Genetic Analysis Workshop Group 8 focused on ways to address the possibility that genetic and environmental effects on phenotype may.
Gene-Environment Interaction Science tells us that the interactions between genes and environment shape human development. Despite the misconception that genes are “set in stone,” research shows that early experiences can determine how genes are turned .
Therefore, this paper will examine the different functions that genetics and the environment play in the criminal behavior of individuals. There is a vast amount of evidence that shows our criminal justice system is the new home for individuals with psychological problems.
Scientists conducting gene-environment interaction research and reviewers of papers evaluating gene-environment interaction effects need to be keenly aware of these issues so that due diligence can be carried out to evaluate interaction effects that are detected (or not) in a given sample.
In this paper, we will focus on 'gene-environment interaction' in mental disorders, using genetic control of sensitivity to the environment as our definition of that term.
Gene-environment interaction occurs when environmental influences on a trait differ according to a person's genetic predispositions, or when a person's genetic. Gene-Environment Interaction Paper In a reflective paper of words, describe how Sandra Scarr's three types of heredity-environment interactions apply to you.
One trait should be discussed for each of the three interaction types (see the following).