January As conflict escalatesadversaries begin to make greater threats and impose harsher negative sanctions. There is often a greater degree of direct violence and both sides suffer heavy losses. In some cases, these conflicts spiral completely out of control. Given the highly destructive role that escalation plays, it is important to develop strategies to limit and reverse this process.
We see Michael Psellus in the 11th Century surprisingly contrasting "the ancient and lesser Rome, and the later, more powerful city" [! It is now hard to grasp Constantinople as a greater city than Rome, but there would have been little in Rome's favor in Psellus' day.
Even so, in the midst of Istanbul, it mostly still remains standing, in some places even restored, its breaches merely allowing modern streets to pass [ note ]. That's not the Roman Empire! That's some horrible medieval thing! As Roman historians liked to use archaic place names, and so frequently called Constantinople "Byzantium," their use of "Byzantine," Byzantinus, was simply and logically for residents of the Capital.
The Suda [a tenth century encyclopedia] calls [the historian] Malchus [of Philadelphia] a "Byzantine," which usually meant a native of Constantinople but in this case must have meant a longtime resident. German, envoys, in an embassy from Otto Iwith their own pretentions as successors of Rome, arrived at the Court of Nicephorus Phocas intheir represenation of Otto as the "Emperor of the Romans" Imperator Romanorum was hotly disputed.
Otto was not a successor of Constantine. A letter then arrived from the Pope addressed to the "emperor of the Greeks. Evidently the Pope had not heard of "Byzantium" as the name of the Empire [ note ]. While "Byzantium" is indeed used merely as a term of convience and custom by most historians, there is the awkward question of when "Rome" ends and "Byzantium" begins.
If Rome "fell" inthen clearly "Byzantium" should begin there; but this boundary is rarely used. Since Constantinople itself must be explained, Byzantine histories commonly begin with Constantine, often inwhen Constantine had defeated Lincinius and acquired the East.
This is what one finds in A. The flip side of this would be simply to end the "Roman Empire" with Constantine.
This is not common, but I have seen Garrett G. With thirty-six lectures on Emperors, Fagan abruptly stops at Constantine, with a handoff to Kenneth W. Harl's lectures, "The World of Byzantium" , to continue the story.
Fagan says that, to him, Constantine was the first Mediaeval, or the first Byzantine, Emperor; and so his job is done. The drawback of this approach is that the last century and a half of the Western Empire falls between the stools, not to mention the extraordinary and tragic Julianwho ruled the whole Empire.
A Byzantinist is not going to pay much attention to Ricimeras Harl, who doesn't even mention his name, indeed does not. And Harl has the annoying habit of saying "Stilichio" for Stilicho and "Visiogoths" for "Visigoths," forms that I do not see attested in any print source. So this approach really will not do.
On the other hand, David R. Sear's Byzantine Coins and Their Values [Seaby, ] is the direct continuation of his Roman Coins and Their Values [Seaby, ], and he chooses to make the division at the reign of the Emperor Anastasius just because Anastasius carried out a major reform of the copper coinage.
Others take Phocas or Heracliusunder whom the Danube Frontier collapsed and the Arab invasion occurred, as the first "Byzantine" emperors: Fischer Verlag, Part 2, Second Edition,pp.
Fischer Verlag, Second Edition,pp. One nice touch for the division at Phocas could be that he was the last Emperor to place a monument, a column, in the Forum at Rome.
The most recent thorough history, however, Warren Treadgold's A History of the Byzantine State and Society [Stanford University Press, ], begins where many of the explanations must begin, with Diocletian himself in -- elsewhere [Byzantium and Its Army,Stanford,p.
A final date for the transition could bewhich is used by Peter Brown and others to terminate "Late Antiquity. Both these events are significant, but they seem like variations on developments already far progressed.
However much one wishes to avoid the dangers [? As I have noted, several recent writers prefer to see "Byzantium" proper as beginning from ca.
Constantinople was formally inaugurated in ADbut there was not yet such an entity as "Byzantium," distinct from the eastern Roman Empire, and it remains the case that the Byzantines thought of themselves as Romans chapter 3.
The shock and loss of territory consequent on the Arab invasion of the seventh century also necessitated a painful adjustment. Nevertheless, adopting a later periodization risks obscuring the fact that what we call Byzantium had a long earlier history; it was not a new state formed only in the medieval period.
In the last generation "late antiquity" has taken over from "the later Roman empire" in much of the secondary literature, even if the continuing number of publications discussing its scope and nature suggests that these questions are not yet settled.An essay on the reasons for false confessions.
A confession, defined as a written or oral statement acknowledging guilt, in criminal law is a very. Where Am I? by DANIEL C. DENNETT. Now that I've won my suit under the Freedom of Information Act, I am at liberty to reveal for the first time a curious episode in my life that may be of interest not only to those engaged in research in the philosophy of mind, artificial intelligence, and neuroscience but also to the general public.
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