The path towards the Single European Market for Electricity Energy is one of nowadays most frequently discussed issues. It becomes a more and more crucial factor for growth and competitiveness in Europe as well as worldwide. Dependable energy services at reasonable prices for business and household customers are essential elements for the economic and social development in the European Union EU.
Static Electricity Chapter 1 - Basic Concepts Of Electricity It was discovered centuries ago that certain types of materials would mysteriously attract one another after being rubbed together. Indeed, there was an attractive force that could be demonstrated even when the two materials were separated: Anyone who has ever brushed up against a latex balloon only to find that it tries to stick to them has experienced this same phenomenon.
Paraffin wax and wool cloth are another pair of materials early experimenters recognized as manifesting attractive forces after being rubbed together: This phenomenon became even more interesting when it was discovered that identical materials, after having been rubbed with their respective cloths, always repelled each other: It was also noted that when a piece of glass rubbed with silk was exposed to a piece of wax rubbed with wool, the two materials would attract one another: Furthermore, it was found that any material demonstrating properties of attraction or repulsion after being rubbed could be classed into one of two distinct categories: It was either one or the other: More attention was directed toward the pieces of cloth used to do the rubbing.
It was discovered that after rubbing two pieces of glass with two pieces of silk cloth, not only did the glass pieces repel each other, but so did the cloths.
The same phenomenon held for the pieces of wool used to rub the wax: Now, this was really strange to witness. After all, none of these objects were visibly altered by the rubbing, yet they definitely behaved differently than before they were rubbed. Whatever change took place to make these materials attract or repel one another was invisible.
Charles Dufay was one of the early experimenters who demonstrated that there were definitely two different types of changes wrought by rubbing certain pairs of objects together.
The fact that there was more than one type of change manifested in these materials was evident by the fact that there were two types of forces produced: The hypothetical fluid transfer became known as a charge. After experimenting with wax and wool, Franklin suggested that the coarse wool removed some of this invisible fluid from the smooth wax, causing an excess of fluid on the wool and a deficiency of fluid on the wax.
The resulting disparity in fluid content between the wool and wax would then cause an attractive force, as the fluid tried to regain its former balance between the two materials. In other words, there was never a time where two materials rubbed against each other both became either positive or negative.
Little did he know that his innocent conjecture would cause much confusion for students of electricity in the future! The operational definition of a coulomb as the unit of electrical charge in terms of force generated between point charges was found to be equal to an excess or deficiency of about 6,,, electrons.
Or, stated in reverse terms, one electron has a charge of about 0. Being that one electron is the smallest known carrier of electric charge, this last figure of charge for the electron is defined as the elementary charge.
The three fundamental particles comprising most atoms are called protons, neutrons and electrons. Whilst the majority of atoms have a combination of protons, neutrons, and electrons, not all atoms have neutrons; an example is the protium isotope 1H1 of hydrogen Hydrogen-1 which is the lightest and most common form of hydrogen which only has one proton and one electron.
Atoms are far too small to be seen, but if we could look at one, it might appear something like this: This crude model is that of the element carbon, with six protons, six neutrons, and six electrons. In any atom, the protons and neutrons are very tightly bound together, which is an important quality.
The tight binding of protons in the nucleus is responsible for the stable identity of chemical elements, and the failure of alchemists to achieve their dream. Neutrons are much less influential on the chemical character and identity of an atom than protons, although they are just as hard to add to or remove from the nucleus, being so tightly bound.
If neutrons are added or gained, the atom will still retain the same chemical identity, but its mass will change slightly and it may acquire strange nuclear properties such as radioactivity.
However, electrons have significantly more freedom to move around in an atom than either protons or neutrons. In fact, they can be knocked out of their respective positions even leaving the atom entirely! If this happens, the atom still retains its chemical identity, but an important imbalance occurs.
Electrons and protons are unique in the fact that they are attracted to one another over a distance. It is this attraction over distance which causes the attraction between rubbed objects, where electrons are moved away from their original atoms to reside around atoms of another object.
Electrons tend to repel other electrons over a distance, as do protons with other protons. The only reason protons bind together in the nucleus of an atom is because of a much stronger force called the strong nuclear force which has effect only under very short distances. That is, each electron has a negative charge, and each proton a positive charge.
This is why the picture of a carbon atom had six electrons: Neutrons are neither attracted to or repelled by electrons, protons, or even other neutrons, and are consequently categorized as having no charge at all.
The process of electrons arriving or leaving is exactly what happens when certain combinations of materials are rubbed together: Thus, an object whose atoms have received a surplus of electrons is said to be negatively charged, while an object whose atoms are lacking electrons is said to be positively charged, as confusing as these designations may seem.Electricity is quite simple: "electricity" is just the flowing motion of electricity!
Electricity is a mysterious incomprehensible entity which is invisible and visible, both at the same time. Also, electricity is both a form of energy and a type of matter.
Open Document. Below is an essay on "Electricity Generation from Leachae" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples. Electricity is a general term encompassing a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge.
These include many easily recognizable phenomena, such as lightning, static electricity, and the flow of electrical current . The current human reliance on electricity calls for a need to research alternative forms of power for the future.
Electricity is so common today that it would be difficult for anyone to imagine how life would be without the well-known applications we use every day in .
Abstract: This paper explains the way in which the current U.S. electric system contains insufficient incentives for long-term investments in transmission.
Moreover, it highlights some key issues that should be considered to improve these investment incentives. The paper shows that, under the. A New Blueprint for Ontario’s Electricity Market Current Ontario Electricity Market Arrangements The provincially owned Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is the province’s dominant electricity supplier, with (OPA), which has overall responsibility for ensuring the province’s long-term electricity supply, contracted with new entrants.