That is one immensely loaded question!
Telescope[ edit ] The first telescopes appeared in the Netherlands in when Middelburg spectacle-maker Hans Lippershey tried to obtain a patent on one. He probably was not the first person to aim the new invention at the night sky  but his was the first systematic and published study of celestial bodies using one.
Sidereus Nuncius contains more than seventy drawings and diagrams of the Moon, certain constellations such as OrionPleiadesand Taurusand the Medicean Stars of Jupiter.
Galileo's text also includes descriptions, explanations, and theories of his observations. Moon[ edit ] In observing the Moon, Galileo saw that the line separating lunar day from night the terminator was smooth where it crossed the darker regions of the moon but quite irregular where it crossed the brighter areas.
From this he deduced that the darker regions are flat, low-lying areas, and the brighter regions rough and mountainous. Basing his estimate on the distance of sunlit mountaintops from the terminator, he judged, quite accurately, that the lunar mountains were at least four miles high.
Galileo's engravings of the lunar surface provided a new form of visual representation, besides shaping the field of selenographythe study of physical features on the Moon. Stars[ edit ] Galileo reported that he saw at least ten times more stars through the telescope than are visible to the naked eye, and he published star charts of the belt of Orion and the star cluster Pleiades showing some of the newly observed stars.
With the naked eye observers could see only six stars in the Taurus constellation; through his telescope, however, Galileo was capable of seeing thirty-five — almost six times as many.
When he turned his telescope on Orion, he was capable of seeing eighty stars, rather than the previously observed nine — almost nine times more.
In Sidereus Nuncius, Galileo revised and reproduced these two star groups by distinguishing between the stars seen without the telescope and those seen with it. From this he deduced that the nebulae and the Milky Way were "congeries of innumerable stars grouped together in clusters" too small and distant to be resolved into individual stars by the naked eye.
Medicean Stars Moons of Jupiter [ edit ] In the last part of Sidereus Nuncius, Galileo reported his discovery of four objects that appeared to form a straight line of stars near Jupiter.
On the first night he detected a line of three little stars close to Jupiter parallel to the ecliptic; the following nights brought different arrangements and another star into his view, totalling four stars around Jupiter.
That they changed their positions relative to Jupiter from night to night and yet always appeared in the same straight line near it, persuaded Galileo that they were orbiting Jupiter.
On January 11 after four nights of observation he wrote: These observations also established that there are not only three, but four, erratic sidereal bodies performing their revolutions round Jupiter He made this distinction to show that there was in fact a difference between these two types of celestial bodies.
In addition, he named his discovered four moons of Jupiter the "Medicean Stars," in honor of the four royal Medici brothers. Reception[ edit ] The reactions to Sidereus Nuncius, ranging from appraisal and hostility to disbelief, soon spread throughout Italy and England.
Many poems and texts were published expressing love for the new form of astronomical science. Three works of art were even created in response to Galileo's book: Verification versus falsifiability…saw their origins in the announcement of Sidereus Nuncius.
A common response to the Medicean Stars was simply to say that the telescope had a lens defect and was producing illusory points of light and images; those saying this completely denied the existence of the moons. It wasn't until August that Kepler was able to publish his independent confirmation of Galileo's findings, due to the scarcity of sufficiently powerful telescopes.
Marius, a German astronomer who had studied with Tycho Brahewas the first to publish a book of his observations.
Marius attacked Galileo in Mundus Jovialis published in by insisting that he had found Jupiter's four moons before Galileo and had been observing them since Marius believed that he therefore had the right to name them, which he did: IoEuropaGanymedeand Callisto.
But Galileo was not confounded —- he pointed out that being outside the Church, Marius had not yet accepted the Gregorian calendar and was still using the Julian calendar. Therefore, the night Galileo first observed Jupiter's moons was January 7, on the Gregorian calendar -— December 28, on the Julian calendar Marius claimed to have first observed Jupiter's moons on December 29,  Although Galileo did indeed discover Jupiter's four moons before Marius, IoEuropaGanymedeand Callisto are now the names of Galileo's four moons.
Before the publication of Sidereus Nuncius, the Catholic Church accepted the Copernican heliocentric system as strictly mathematical and hypothetical. The University of Chicago Press, Edward Stafford Carlos; translations with introduction and notes.
Oxford and Cambridge, January The Starry Messenger is a dramatic fun filled adaptation of Galileo's short treatise Siderius Nuncius. Galileo (dressed in 17th century costume) arrives at your organization to present a public lecture on his most recent discoveries made using his newly devised spyglass.
The Galileo affair is one of the few examples commonly used by advocates of the conflict thesis. Maurice Finocchiaro writes that the Galileo affair epitomizes the common view of "the conflict between enlightened science and obscurantist religion," and that this view promotes "the myth that alleges the incompatibility between science and religion.".
Measuring about 91 billion light years in diameter and being billion years old, the Universe encompasses all matter, energy, time and space in existence.
Sep 10, · Read by Joe Kiernan. इस खोज की वजह से galileo को गँवानी पड़ी अपनी जान ||most important invention by galileo galilie - Duration: ค้นพบ Link ทั้งสิ้น รายการ 1.
nfkGZOVdBGjg grupobittia.com Galileo Galilei (Italian: [ɡaliˈlɛːo ɡaliˈlɛi]; 15 February – 8 January ) was an Italian grupobittia.como is a central figure in the transition from natural philosophy to modern science and in the transformation of the scientific Renaissance into a scientific grupobittia.com for his work as astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher, and mathematician, Galileo .