An analysis of an individual progresses from childhood to adulthood during the decade of adolescence

Abstract Past research has suggested that white matter volume increases from childhood to adulthood; however, during adolescence, there is somewhat limited data to support this finding. In the present study, 65 typically developing adolescents underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Using magnetic resonance imaging, prefrontal white matter volumes were examined in relation to adolescent age and sex.

An analysis of an individual progresses from childhood to adulthood during the decade of adolescence

J ; Timothy Olds: L ; Rosa Alati: R ; Melissa Wake: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Puberty is a multifaceted developmental process that begins in late-childhood with a cascade of endocrine changes that ultimately lead to sexual maturation and reproductive capability.

The transition through puberty is marked by an increased risk for the onset of a range of health problems, particularly those related to the control of behaviour and emotion.

Early onset puberty is associated with a greater risk of cancers of the reproductive tract and cardiovascular disease.

An analysis of an individual progresses from childhood to adulthood during the decade of adolescence

Previous studies have had methodological limitations and have tended to view puberty as a unitary process, with little distinction between adrenarche, gonadarche and linear growth.

The Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study CATS aims to prospectively examine associations between the timing and stage of the different hormonally-mediated changes, as well as the onset and course of common health and behavioural problems that emerge in the transition from childhood to adolescence.

Measures are repeated annually and comprise student, parent and teacher questionnaires, and student anthropometric measurements. A saliva sample was collected from students at baseline and will be repeated at later waves, with the primary purpose of measuring hormonal indices of adrenarche and gonadarche.

Discussion CATS is uniquely placed to capture biological and phenotypic indices of the pubertal process from its earliest manifestations, together with anthropometric measures and assessment of child health and development.

The cohort will provide rich detail of the development, lifestyle, external circumstances and health of children during the transition from childhood through to adolescence.

Baseline associations between the hormonal measures and measures of mental health and behaviour will initially be examined cross-sectionally, and then in later waves longitudinally.

Puberty, Hormones, Adrenarche, Gonadarche, Adolescent, Cohort studies, Public health, Protocol, Epidemiology Background Puberty is a universal experience in normal human development, marking the transition from childhood to adulthood. It is accompanied by physical growth, brain maturation and sexual maturation resulting in reproductive capability [ 1 ].

The transition through puberty is also marked by an increased risk for the onset of health problems related to behaviour and emotional control [ 2 ]. The Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study CATS is a new longitudinal study of pubertal development that aims to prospectively examine the hormonal, psychological and social processes that may influence the onset and course of health problems between childhood and adolescence.

This paper presents the research protocol for the study. It was not until the middle of the 20th century that studies began to objectively quantify puberty [ 3 ].

During the s, Tanner and colleagues created a five-level staging system for external signs of pubertal development, which remains the primary system in use today [ 4 - 6 ]. The Tanner stages range from Stage 1, no external signs of pubertal development, to Stage 5, which indicates complete physical maturation.

While Tanner described separate breast and pubic hair stages in girls and genital, testicular and pubic hair stages in boys, these are extremely highly correlated and are appropriately considered together as a single stage [ 7 ].

However, this view of puberty as a unitary process with a distinct onset marked by physical changes, such as hair growth, genital and skin changes or menarche, is overly simplistic. Puberty is in fact a combination of physiological processes that originate with neuroendocrinological changes several years prior to the onset of physical signs [ 9 ].

There are at least three separate neuroendocrine axes involved in the pubertal cascade; adrenarche, the activation of adrenal androgen production; gonadarche, the activation of the gonads proper, and the further activation of the growth hormone-insulin-like-growth factor IGF axis that occurs at puberty.

The activation of puberty is not well understood and remains under-researched. It is unlikely that a single event causes the onset of puberty but that it begins with the initiation of a complex neuroendocrine network [ 10 ].

The timing of puberty has genetic components, with nutrition, development in utero, socioeconomic factors and demographic factors in childhood also contributing [ 111 ].

Gonadarche, the best understood of the pubertal processes, results in sexual maturation and reproductive capability, and is physically marked by menarche in girls and spermarche in boys.

An analysis of an individual progresses from childhood to adulthood during the decade of adolescence

It is initiated by the transition from tonic to pulsatile secretion of gonadotrophin releasing hormone GnRHwhich in turn leads to increased pituitary secretion of the gonadotrophins, follicle-stimulating hormone FSH and luteinising hormone LH [ 10 ].

Adrenarche is a feature of higher primate development not seen in other mammalian species apart from chimpanzees and gorillas [ 3 ].

Adrenarche may play a role in the extension of the preadolescent phase on human ontogeny, promoting prolonged brain development of the pre-frontal cortex [ 13 ].

Adrenal androgens have a role in the development of axillary and pubic hair, the emergence of acne, particularly in females, and may play an important role in brain maturation [ 14 ].The life stages such as infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age are developmental phases, each with its own biological, psychological, and social characteristics, through which individuals pass over the course of their lives.

Adolescence and Adulthood 10 PSY_Cqxd 1/2/05 pm Page childhood, beginning with adolescence and then moving into the phases of adulthood – early, mid-dle and late.

Although there are many aspects to develop-ment during adolescence and adulthood, and wide individual variation in circumstances and achievements, the core issues. the developmental period of transition from childhood to adulthood; it involves biological, cognitive, and socioemotional changes.

Adolescence begins at approximately 10 . Oct 08,  · The Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (CATS) is a new longitudinal study of pubertal development that aims to prospectively examine the hormonal, psychological and social processes that may influence the onset and course of health problems between childhood and adolescence.

Sep 18,  · Past research has suggested that white matter volume increases from childhood to adulthood; however, during adolescence, there is somewhat limited data to support this finding.

In the present study, 65 typically developing adolescents underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Using magnetic. Life stages analysis has focused on the changing definition, demarcation, and social experience of the phases of individual development.

These include scientific and medical discoveries that identify childhood, adolescence, and old age as biologically and psychologically distinct stages of life, with their own needs and characteristics; and.

Age-related changes in prefrontal white matter volume across adolescence