The name "America" is often used to refer to the United States, but until the political formation of the United States after the Revolutionary War, this designation referred to South America only. Contemporary use of the term to refer to the United States underlines that country's political and economic dominance in the western hemisphere. Such use of this designation is impolitic from the perspective of Canadians and Latin Americans.
If so, time and space reflect the different cultural conceptualizations of mental images. This essay examines how various combinations of Native and Western notions of time and space contribute to the reconceptualization of the Columbian grand narrative.
In our case, it is against historiographic colonialism, against the muting of indigenous voices by Western historicizing. This is why Native writers address the Columbus story in accord with the Native American storytelling tradition, by means of flexibly constructed stories, applying spatial, temporal as well as structural strategies inherent in their own traditional storytelling.
As for the temporal dimension, the Native story is never envisioned as linear or chronologically and thematically fixed; it shows variations. Through this process do discovery narratives attain healing power; traditionally, recontextualization constitutes the ceremonial healing aspect of the Native American storytelling mode, also integral to the Native sense of time and history.
Metaphorically speaking, it plants the past an event, a mythic story, or some cultural tradition in the present a storytelling event or a ceremony to bear fruit in the future the tribal community restored to spiritual health.
Thus Native history and temporality go hand in hand with a strong sense of place, actually, the latter more elementally shaping culture than time does. This is generally the place where a given tribe came to the earth.
An eloquent illustration of this concept can be found in N. In a conversation with Momaday, Charles L. Consequently, a geographical location is more than a spot; it is sacred since it radiates eternal spiritual power and, as such, is connected to an Indigenous sense of time, which is the physical representation of eternity.
In discovery narratives, the center of spatial dimensions, the geographical location that radiates spiritual power that emerges as a landmark, is the shore where Columbus landed. Native and contemporary Western beliefs meet here: Columbus believed his role in providential history was to seek the way to Terrestrial Paradise Kadir And so, when Columbus reached the temperate region, he was certain to have hit upon earthly paradise.
The obsession with gold and riches was rooted in spiritual preoccupations. One important spiritual component to the venture was the quest to find the East via westward travels to find the Orient. Martin Leer argues that it also entails preoccupation with lost origins besides finding treasures.
Here is a hold on the Columbus story for Native American writers: But are the spiritually enriched Native space inhabited by the Taino Indians and the spiritually symbolical same location in the Western Columbus discourse the same? They are definitely not, because there was actually no real discovery of the World of the Other—one discourse was simply written over the other.
The very same notion manifested itself in a religious dimension as Columbus renamed everything he encountered. He picked biblical names combined with ones that reflected his patriotic sentiments: Thus the Columbus story reveals a basic truth about space: This act also reveals the drive behind colonial intentions: But if representation changes, identity alters with it.
With the erasure of Native place names, the Native concepts of space, Native cultures and identities were written over. Aboriginal authors today are concerned with writing those erased, ignored aspects of the Discovery back into historiography, to regain power over representation.
Three spatial parameters develop out of the power struggle over representation in Dorris-Erdrich, Bird, and King, and all three are present in different ways: The reader learns a lot about both the Native and the White sides of the story in the novel. Simultaneous plot strands converge toward the shore where Columbus landed; both the novel and the Columbus heritage weave toward the center of the spatial and temporal web.
In the meantime, space as Western culture and Western historical linearity, disappear in the circling wheel of Indian time. Physical distance between the parties is also significantly reduced, and this motion in outer space is mirrored in inner space; a psychological opening up toward the Other is achieved.12 domains of culture background paper on sustenance & health (healing and wellness) 1.
You are what you eat and what you eat is a reflection of your values and beliefs.
To many Americans, food is not only a source of nourishment, it is also . American culture can be greatly attributed to the nature of the country's development. Relatively youthful in its history, most Americans descend from immigrants from all over the world who have been building the country for the past years.
Biography. Erik Erikson was born in Frankfurt, Germany, on June 15, There is a little mystery about his heritage: His biological father was an unnamed Danish man who abandoned Erik's mother before he was born.
Please keep in mind that it is acceptable and even desirable in American culture to be proactive and introduce yourself in new social situations. Even with people with higher rank (e.g. deans), it is perfectly acceptable to introduce yourself to him or her before he or she comes to you.
To sum up, Dorris and Erdrich first confront time/space relations as Native culture and the same dimensions as Western culture, then try to harmonize them; Bird, exposes the gap between the two, while King encompasses it all with border-defying trickster power.
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